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Levitating Objects


Accredited Investor

Investors in entities fundraising under the SEC's 506(b) and 506(c) exceptions must meet certain conditions.

a) Individuals with income over $200,000 ($300,000 with spouse), in each of the last two calendar years, and who reasonably expect to have such income in the current calendar year; OR with a net worth over $1,000,000 (with or without spouse, excluding primary residence); OR who are holders of Series 7, Series 82, or Series 65 licenses.

b) Trusts with assets over $5 million that were not formed specifically to make the investment and are directed by a Sophisticated Investor; OR that are revocable (even if formed specifically to make the investment) and the grantor or settlor is an Accredited Investor.

c) Other entities with assets over $5,000,000 and not formed specifically to make the investment; OR in which each equity owner is an Accredited Investor.

Active Investor

See "General Partner."

Bonus Depreciation

Bonus depreciation allows businesses to accelerate depreciation deductions for assets that have a useful life of 20 years or less. So, assets with useful lives of 5, 7, or 15 years identified in a cost segregation study are eligible to be deducted at a faster rate than 5, 7, or 15 years as the case may be. Before 2023, 100% of the depreciation on 5-, 7-, and 15-year property could be deducted in the first year. Congress is reducing bonus depreciation rates to 80% in 2023, 60% in 2024, 40% in 2025, 20% in 2026, and 0% in 2027 and beyond.

Capitalization Rate ("Cap Rate")

The Capitalization Rate (Cap Rate) is the Net Operating Income divided by the property’s fair market value or purchase price. It is the annual rate of return on a real estate investment property based on the income that the property is expected to generate without regard for debt service payments. The cap rate is most useful as a comparison of relative value of similar real estate investments.

Cash-on-Cash ("CoC") Return

The cash-on-cash return is a property's net cash flow from operations net of debt service payments divided by invested capital. It is the equivalent of a stock's dividend yield. The cash-on-cash return does not include changes in the property's value.

Cost Segregation Study

A cost segregation study identifies the cost of each interior and exterior component of a building to identify those that can be depreciated over 5, 7, or 15 years instead of 27.5 years. Some examples are parking lots, windows, carpets, and landscaping. A shorter depreciable life means a higher income tax deduction.

Debt Service Coverage Ratio ("DSCR")

One of two primary measures a lender uses to determine the loan amount is a minimum DSCR. The DSCR is a property's Net Operating Income for the period being measured divided by the debt payment(s) for that period. For example, if a loan requires a minimum DSCR of 1.25, then NOI must be 1.25 times the debt payment amount (or alternatively, the debt payment amount cannot be more than 80% of NOI). Put another way, the lender in this example is requiring a NOI cushion of 25%. This gives the lender some comfort that if NOI decreases because of a drop in occupancy, negative rent growth, or unexpected expenses, then it's likely the property owner could still make the loan payments.

Depreciation Expense

Depreciation expense is an annual reduction of taxable income that allows for the wear and tear, deterioration, or obsolescence of property used in a trade or business.

Economic Vacancy

Economic vacancy describes the underutilization of a rental property relative to its capacity, indicating unrealized potential rental income. It encompasses unoccupied rental units (physical vacancy), loss to lease, concessions, uncollected rent, lost rent on model units, and rent discounts to employees.

Effective Gross Revenue ("EGR")

Effective Gross Revenue (EGR) is calculated by adding Gross Potential Revenue with other income and subtracting rent lost to under-market leases, non-revenue units, concessions, collections, and physical vacancy.

Forced Appreciation

See "Value-Add Strategy."

General Partner (or “GP” / Active Investor/ Sponsor)

This is Volhawk. The GP team sources the property, analyzes the deal, negotiates terms, raises equity, obtains the loan, secures property management, and executes the business plan.

Gross Potential Revenue ("GPR")

Gross Potential Revenue (GPR) is the hypothetical amount of rent a property would earn not considering other income or rent lost to under-market leases, non-revenue units, concessions, collections, and physical vacancy. It assumes 100% of units are rented out at current market prices.

Internal Rate-of-Return ("IRR")

The IRR is a widely used method of valuing a property’s annual cash flow stream by converting future cash flows into present-day dollars. It represents the average annual return required to convert today's investment dollars into those future cash flows and is computed by starting with the future cash flows and working backwards. Mathematically, the IRR is the percentage rate that discounts (reduces) the sum of future cash flows to a present value that equals the investment amount.

Limited Partner (or "LP" / Passive Investor)

A Limited Partner is an investor with no management responsibility who provides equity capital to acquire and operate the property, and in return receives a portion of operating cash flow and sale/refinance proceeds.

Loan-to-Value Ratio ("LTV")

One of two primary measures a lender will use to determine the loan amount is a maximum LTV. The LTV is the loan balance divided by a property's value. For example, if a loan amount is limited to 70% LTV, it means the loan amount cannot exceed 70% of the property's value (usually the purchase price at loan origination). A maximum LTV gives a lender some comfort that if the loan goes into default, it is likely that the value will be worth at least as much as the loan balance.

Loss to Lease

Loss to lease (LTL) on a rental property refers to the amount by which a unit's actual "in-place" rent is less than its market rental rate. To facilitate comparison to comparable properties, one can convert LTL to a percentage by dividing the market rental rate by the in-place rent and then subtracting one. It's important for property owners to monitor and manage LTL effectively to optimize income potential and overall profitability. This concept is particularly relevant in scenarios with long-term leases, where there is a greater risk of market fluctuations impacting rental rates.

Net Operating Income ("NOI")

Net Operating Income (NOI) is a property’s Effective Gross Revenue reduced by all expenses except for loan payments, income taxes, mortgage insurance premium (MIP) payments, and sometimes funded replacement reserves.

Passive Investor

See "Limited Partner."

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